Surveying, a means of making relatively large-scale, accurate measurements of the Earth’s surfaces. It includes the determination of the measurement data, the reduction and interpretation of the data to usable form, and, conversely, the establishment of relative position and size according to given measurement requirements.
Thus, surveying has two similar but opposite functions: (1) The determination of existing relative horizontal and vertical position, such as that used for the process of mapping, and (2) The establishment of marks to control construction or to indicate land boundaries.
Surveying; the first step of starting a new civil engineering project, is a very important branch of civil engineering. To understand the techniques of surveying a student must carefully study the basics of it. To start learning surveying one must start with the definition of surveying and its importance.
Surveying is the technique of determining the relative position of different features on, above or beneath the surface of the earth by means of direct or indirect measurements and finally representing them on a sheet of paper known as plan or map.